Trilogy of Italian Gothic cathedrals.
It starts in Siena (13th century) the first Gothic cathedral in Italy, known as The Heaven’s Gate, with a transition from the Romanesque to the Gothic, but the entire structure, decoration and facade completely Gothic, the first and the most exuberant.
The one in Orvieto (14th century), which follows the same pattern as Siena but is already purely Gothic and the whole façade is covered with mosaics, as in the gables of Siena, less the structural elements, it is the poorest of the 3, it has neither a dome nor a campanile and the crossing vault is replaced by a wooden structure.
The facade of the cathedral of Florence, Santa Maria Del Fiore, (it is not from the 15th century, like the rest of the cathedral, it is a neo-Gothic construction from the 19th century, the cathedral is the last Gothic, first renaissance, but the façade is not came to build) inspired also by Siena but without the 3 upper gables and pinnacles, which actually built and then demolished, the structure is already Renaissance, is the fifth largest cathedral in the world, with the modern facade made of 3 marbles, white (of Carrara) green (of Prato) and red (of Siena) already used the game of colors of the 3 màrmoles in the one of Siena, is inspired by the campanile of Giotto, that is not Giotto, of s. XIV.
The 3 states through which the Italian Gothic passed, much more delicate than the French, as it adopted elements of the Byzantine style. They are smaller in height, without practically buttresses and with few windows to avoid the heat of the Italian lands, hence the abundance of the frescoes. They do not usually have towers, a steeple or campanile exempt, to avoid vibrations and the bathipstery, also exempt since the non-baptized could not enter the sacred precincts.
The basilica of San Marcos in Venice, s. XI with nàrtex (lower part of the facade) of the s. XIII, which has nothing to do with the previous 3, at most the precedent, but is another bestiality, does not follow the pattern of the Cathedral of Siena, is earlier, Romanesque, with gables in the upper level than in the fifteenth century They adapted to the Gothic style, with the best mosaics in the world that inspired those of Siena. It is practically Byzantine, in fact a large part was built with the looting of Constantinople, the floor is of Greek cross, the facade alternates both the mosaics as all the marbles of the known world and has 5 doors.